PARGANA TOPOGBAPHY. .
THE pargana of Ivosi is the most northern of the three on the western side of
the Jainuna and borders on the district of Gurgaon. It Is the smallest of the
Mathura six, having an area of only 154 square miles. It yields an annual reve-
nue of Us. 1,52,013, Its villages, sixty-one in. number, with six exceptions, are
all Ikaiydehari, divided into infinitesimal shares among the whole of the com-
munity ; so that, barring a few shopkeepers and menial servants, every resident
is to some extent a proprietor. In the ordinary course of events, all would be,
not only members of the same caste, but also descendants of one man, .the
founder of the settlement; but in many instances, in spite of the right of pre-
emption, several of the subordinate shares have been, bought up by outsiders.
A fresh assessment is made privately every year; and, according toiha amount
of land actually under cultivation, each tenant proprietor pays his quota of the
revenue at so much per bigha, and enjoys the remaining profits as Ms private
income. The Government demand is realized through the head-men or lumber-
darS) of whom there are generally several in each village. As a natural result
of this minute sub-division of estates, there is not a single landed proprietor in
the whole pargana of any social distinction. The two wealthiest inhabitants
are both traders in the town of Kosi—Chunni Lai, son of Mohan Lai, and
Kushali Ram, son of Lai Ji Mall—with incomes of Es. 5,000 and Bs. 4,943 res-
pectively. The former has no land at all, the other owns one small village.
Of the six zamindari villages, only two were so previous to the last settlement;
viz.) Pakliar-pur, the property of Kushali Ram above mentioned, and Jan, a
purchase of the Lala Babd. The other four have acquired their exceptional
character only within the last few years; Garni having been bought from the Jats
by Sah Kundan Lai, of Lakhnau; Majhoi and Ram-pur having been conferred,
after the mutiny, oa R&ja Gobind Singh, of Haiiras, and Chauki on Shiv Sahay
Mall, of Delhi, at the same time. One mahal of Chaundras has also quite.re-
cently been constituted into a zamindari; and two or three other Tillages, now
in the hands of money-lending mortgagees, will probably become so before long.
The Muhammadans number only 8,093 out of a total population of 65,29%
and, with the exception of a few scattered families, are almost confined to seYea
places^, nz.; Barha, Bisambhaia, Doi^na, JaMi-ptorj Kosiy Mahroli, sad Sfaaapur.